3. The HED schema

A HED schema is the formal specification of the HED vocabulary and rules for annotating events. The HED schema vocabulary is organized hierarchically so that similar concepts and terms appear close to one another in the organizational hierarchy. (See the expandable schema viewer.) Valid HED annotations must be drawn from a HED schema vocabulary and HED validators and other tools use the information encoded in the relevant schema when performing validation and other processing of HED annotations.

Users must provide the version of the HED schema they are using when creating an annotation. Past, present, and future versions of the HED schema adhere to semantic versioning with version numbers of the form x.y.z representing major.minor.patch versions. Although schema developers work with HED schema in .mediawiki format for ease in editing, HED tools generally use XML versions of the HED schema.

Standard development process for XML schema.

  1. Create or modify a .mediawiki file containing the schema.

  2. Convert to .xml using the HED tools.

  3. View in the expandable schema viewer to verify.

HED schema XML filenames use the standardized format HEDx.y.z.xml. These standardized names make it easier for tools to locate the appropriate HED schema version in the HED working group GitHub website. The XML schema versions are stored in the hedxml directory of the HED specification repository.

Third generation HED begins with schema version 8.0.0. Thus, the file containing the first official release of the third generation HED schema is HED8.0.0.xml. Note: HED versions 8.0.0-alpha.1 through 8.0.0-beta.5 are prerelease versions of HED-3G and should not be used as they will eventually be deprecated.

Releases are stored in hedxml directory of the hed-specification repository. Deprecated versions of the HED schema are stored in the hedxml/deprecated directory of the hed-specification repository.

All data recordings in a dataset should be annotated using a single version of the standard HED schema. Validation and analysis tools are not expected to handle multiple versions of the standard HED schema when processing a dataset. Datasets may also include annotations from multiple HED library schema extensions in addition to those from the standard schema, as described in Chapter 7: Library schema of this document. A more detailed discussion of the HED schema format appears in Appendix A.

3.1. Mediawiki schema format

HED schema developers usually specify schema in .mediawiki format for more convenient editing, display, and reference on GitHub. However, tools assume that the schema is in .mediawiki format. Conversion tools allow The following brief example illustrates the format. A full description of the format is given in Appendix A.

Example: Layout of a HED schema (.mediawiki).

HED version="8.0.0" 

This prologue introduces the schema.

!# start schema
'''Event''' <nowiki>[Something that happens at a given place and time.]</nowiki>
* Sensory-event <nowiki>{suggestedTask=Task-event-role}[Something perceivable by an agent.]</nowiki>
                              . . .
'''Property'''<nowiki>{extensionAllowed}[A characteristic.] </nowiki>
* Informational-property <nowiki>[A quality pertaining to information.]</nowiki>
** Label <nowiki>{requireChild} [A string of 20 or fewer characters.]</nowiki>
*** <nowiki># {takesValue, valueClass=nameClass}</nowiki> 
!# end schema

'''Unit classes''' <nowiki>[Unit classes and units for the nodes.]</nowiki>
                        . . .
'''Unit modifiers''' <nowiki>[Unit multiples and submultiples.]</nowiki>
                       . . .
'''Value classes''' <nowiki>[Rules for the values provided by users.]</nowiki>
                       . . .
'''Schema attributes''' <nowiki>[Allowed node attributes.]</nowiki>
                        . . .
'''Properties''' <nowiki>[Properties of the schema attributes.]</nowiki>
                        . . .
An optional section that is the place for notes and is ignored in HED processing.

!# end hed

Beginning with third generation HED (HED schema versions 8.0.0 and later), terms in a given schema must be unique within that schema. This uniqueness rule allows automated expansion of short form HED strings into their full long forms.

Top level tree root elements are enclosed by triple single quotes. Each child term within the schema must be on a single line that begins with a certain number of consecutive asterisks (*) corresponding to the term’s level within the hierarchy. The term or node name is separate from its level-indicating asterisks by a space.

Everything after each HED term must be enclosed by <nowiki></nowiki> markup elements. Items within these markup elements include a term description and term attributes.

Term (node element) descriptions are enclosed in square brackets ([ ]) in the .mediawiki specification and indicate the meaning of the term or tag they modify.

HED term attributes are enclosed with curly braces ({ }). These term attribute provide additional rules about how the tag and modifying values should be used and handled by tools. Allowed HED term attributes include unit class and value class values as well as HED schema attributes that do not have the unitClassProperty, unitModifierProperty, unitProperty, or valueClassProperty.

HED term attributes appear in the schema specification either as name attributes or as name=value pairs. The presence of a name attribute for a schema node element indicates that the attribute is true for that term, while the presence of a name=value attribute indicates that the attribute has the specified value for that term. If multiple values of a particular attribute are applicable, they should be specified as separate name-value pairs.

The hashtag character (#) is a placeholder for a user-supplied value. Within the HED schema a # node indicates that the user must supply a value consistent with the unit classes and value classes of the # node if it has any. Lines with hashtag (#) placeholders should have everything after the asterisks enclosed by <nowiki></nowiki> markup elements.

3.2. XML schema format

The HED XML version of the schema is used during validation and analysis. The .xml format has changed with the release of HED-3G. This modification of the XML format was done for the following reasons.

Reasons for XML file format change for HED.

  1. To correctly handle multiple values of schema attributes.

  2. To preserve the prologue and epilogue information present in .mediawiki files.

  3. To allow schema attributes to be formally specified and validated.

  4. To allow an XSD specification of the HED schema for validation of the schema.

The following is a translation of the .mediawiki example from the previous section in the new XML format. A complete specification of the format is given in Appendix A: Schema format.

Example: XML version of previous example.

<?xml version="1.0" ?>
<HED version="8.0.0">
    <prologue>This prologue introduces the schema.</prologue>
           <description>Something that happens at a given place and time.</description>
               <description>Something perceivable by an agent.</description>
                         . . .
            <description>A characteristic of some entity.</description>
                <description>A quality pertaining to information.</description>
                    <description>A string of less than 20.</description>
    <unitClassDefinitions> ...</unitClassDefinitions>
    <epilogue>This epilogue is a place for notes and is ignored in HED processing.</epilogue>

3.2.1 The <node> element

Each <node> element must have a <name> child element corresponding to the HED tag term that it specifies. A <node> element may also have a <description> child element containing the text that appears in square brackets ([ ]) in the .mediawiki version. The schema attributes (which appear as name values or name-value pairs enclosed in curly braces {} in the .mediawiki file) are translated into <attribute> child elements of <node> in the .xml.

3.2.2 Unit classes and modifiers

The HED schema also includes a <unitClassDefinitions> section that specifies the allowed unit classes and the corresponding allowed unit names. Only the singular version of each unit name is explicitly specified, but the corresponding plurals of the explicitly mentioned singular versions are also allowed (e.g., feet is allowed in addition to foot). HED uses a pluralize function available in both Python and Javascript to check validity.

The <unitModifierDefinitions> section lists the SI unit multiples and submultiples that are allowed to be prepended to units that have the SIUnit schema attribute.

3.2.3 Value classes

The <valueClassDefinitions> section specifies rules for the values that are substituted for placeholders (#). Examples are special characters that are allowed for numeric values or dates. Placeholders that have no valueClass attributes, are assumed to follow the rules for HED tag naming described in the next section.

3.2.4 Schema attributes

The <schemaAttributeDefinitions> section lists the schema attributes that apply to some nodes and definitions in other sections of the schema. The specification of which type of elements an attribute may apply to is specified by the property attributes of these schema attributes.

3.2.5 Schema properties

The <schemaPropertyDefinitions> section lists properties of the schema attributes, themselves. This specification allows general validation to handle a lot of the processing directly based on the HED schema contents rather than on hard-coded implementation.

3.3. Allowed names and values

The different parts of the HED schema and associated HED tags have different rules for the characters and names that are allowed. UTF-8 characters are not supported. Schema designers and users that extend HED schema must use node or term names that conform to the rules for valueClass=nameClass. Placeholder values that don’t have an associated valueClass attribute are also assumed to have valueClass=nameClass.

3.3.1 Rules for the HED schema

Rules for valid terms in the HED schema.


Allowed characters

Node (nameClass)

Alphanumeric characters, hyphens, and underbars with no white space.

Description (textClass)

Alphanumeric characters, blanks, commas, periods, semicolons,
colons, hyphens, underbars, forward slashes, carets (^), and parentheses.

Placeholder (#)

A special node value which indicates a later substitution.

Notes on rules for allowed characters in the HED schema.

  1. The first letter of a schema term should be capitalized with the remainder lower case.

  2. Schema terms containing multiple words cannot contain blanks and should be hyphenated.

  3. Schema descriptions should be concise sentences, possibly with clarifying examples.

  4. Schema descriptions cannot contain square brackets, curly braces, quotes, or punctuation not specifically allowed by textClass.

3.3.2 Rules for HED tags

HED tags are paths within the HED schema. Tags corresponding to schema nodes that have a # placeholder child can be extended by a slash followed by a value that conforms to the value and unit classes specified in the schema # placeholder node. These values can be terms corresponding to existing schema nodes, provided the terms satisfy value and unit class constraints.

Nodes that do not have a # placeholder child may be extended by additional terms separated by slashes, provided that they have inherited the extensionAllowed attribute. In this case, the extension terms should conform to the rules for node names and may not already be a node in the schema.

Rules for valid HED tags and their extensions.


Allowed characters

Node extensions (nameClass)

Alphanumeric characters, hyphens, and underbars with
no white space.
The extension cannot be an existing schema node.

Description tag values (textClass)

Alphanumeric characters, blanks, commas, periods, semicolons,
colons, hyphens, underbars, forward slashes, carets (^), and parentheses.

Placeholder substitutions

Depends on valueClass as well as allowed unitClass and unit modifiers.

Library names

A single word containing only alphabetic characters.


A single alphabetic word followed by a single colon.

Notes on rules for allowed characters in the HED tags.

  1. The first letter of a node name extensions should be capitalized with the remainder lower case.

  2. Terms containing multiple words cannot contain blanks and should be hyphenated.

  3. Blanks around comma and parentheses delimiters are not part of a HED tag.

  4. Values substituted for # may have special characters determined by the value class. For example, the colon (:) is specifically allowed for the dateTimeClass value class.

  5. Units are separated from their value by at least one blank whether prefix or suffix.

  6. Library namespace names are local and consist of a short alphabetic word followed by a single colon.

3.3.3 Placeholders in HED tags

The values of HED tag placeholders cannot stand alone, but must include the parent when used in a HED string. For example, the Label node in the HED schema has the # child. Thus, the value myLabel meant to substitute for the # child of the Label node must include Label when used in a HED tag (e.g., Label/myLabel not myLabel).

The values substituted for # may themselves be schema node names provided they conform with any value class requirements associated with that #. Thus, Label/Item is a valid HED tag. However, Data-maximum/Item is not valid because the # child of Data-maximum has a valueClass=numericClass attribute.

Certain unit classes allow other special characters in their value specification. These special characters are specified in the schema with the allowedCharacter attribute. An example of this is the colon in the dateTimeClass unit class.

3.4. Vocabulary organization

The HED-3G schema (version 8.0.0 and above) contains six root trees of HED terms: Event, Agent, Action, Item, Property, and Relation.

The Event root tree terms indicate the general category of the event, such as whether it is a sensory event, an agent action, a data feature, or an event indicating experiment control or structure. The HED annotations describing each event may be assembled from a number of sources during processing.

The assembled HED string annotating an event should have at least one tag from the Event tree, as many analysis tools use the Event tags as a primary means of segregating, epoching, and processing the data. Ideally, tags from the Event subtree should appear at the top level of the HED annotation describing an event to facilitate analysis.

The Agent root tree terms indicate types of agents (e.g., persons, animals, avatars) that take an active role or produce a specified effect. An Agent tag should be grouped with property tags that provide information about the agent, such as whether the agent is an experiment participant.

The Action root tree terms describe actions performed by agents. Generally these are grouped in a triple (A, (Action, B)) which is interpreted as A does Action on B. If the action does not have a target, it should be annotated (A, (Action)), meaning A does Action.

The Item root tree terms describe things with (actual or virtual) physical existence such as objects, sounds, or language.

Descriptive elements are organized in the Property rooted tree. These descriptive elements should always be grouped with the elements they describe using parentheses.

Binary relations are in the Relation rooted tree. Like items from the Action sub-tree, these should be annotated using (A, (Relation, B)).

3.5. Tag syntax

A HED tag is a term in the HED vocabulary identified by a path consisting of the individual node names from some branch of the HED schema hierarchy separated by forward slashes (/). An important requirement of third generation HED is that the node names in the HED schema must be unique. As a consequence, the user can specify as much of the path to the root as desired. The full path version is referred to as long form and truncated versions as short form. HED tools are available to map between shortened tags and long form as needed. Any intermediate form of the tag path is also allowed as illustrated by this example:

Example: Equivalent forms for HED tag representing a triangle.

  1. Item/Object/Geometric-object/2D-shape/Triangle

  2. Object/Geometric-object/2D-shape/Triangle

  3. Geometric-object/2D-shape/Triangle

  4. 2D-shape/Triangle

  5. Triangle

For values that are substituted for a placeholder (#) child, the tag must include the parent as illustrated in this example for the Label tag. The values that replace these # placeholders may be schema node names, if the value and unit classes associated with the # placeholder permit it.

Example: Equivalent forms for HED tag representing the label Image1.

  1. Property/Informational-property/Label/Image1

  2. Informational-property/Label/Image1

  3. Label/Image1

A HED string is a comma-separated list of HED tags and/or HED tag groups. A HED tag group is a comma-separated list of HED tags and/or tag groups enclosed in parentheses. Tag groups may include other tag groups. Parentheses convey association, since HED strings are unordered lists. The terms in a HED string must be unique, thus, a HED string forms a set.

Example: Nested HED tag group indicated press.

Short form:

((Human-agent, Experiment-participant), (Press, Mouse-button))

Long form:


The validation errors for HED tags and HED strings are summarized in Appendix B: HED errors.

HED # placeholders cannot have siblings. Thus, tags that have placeholder children cannot be extended even if they inherit an extensionAllowed attribute from an ancestor. The parsers treat any child of these tags as a value rather than a tag.

HED values can be strings or numeric values followed by a unit specification. If a unitClass is specified as an attribute of the # node, then the units specified must be valid units for that unitClass. HED parsers assume that units are separated from values by at least one blank.