# B. HED errors¶

This appendix summarizes the error codes used by HED validators and other tools.

HED tools for users (i.e., annotators and analysts) are mainly concerned with HED validation errors relating to incorrectly annotated events.(See Chapter B.3: HED validation errors for a listing.) These tools assume that the HED schema are error-free and that schema errors can only occur due to failure to locate or read a HED schema. (See Chapter B.3: Schema loading errors for a listing.)

HED schema developers are mainly concerned with errors and inconsistencies in the schema itself. (See Chapter B.2: Schema validation errors for a listing.)

## B.1. HED validation errors¶

HED_CHARACTER_INVALID: HED string contains an invalid character.

HED uses ANSI encoding and does not support UTF-8.

Different parts of a HED string have different rules for acceptable characters as outlined in Chapter 3.3: Valid characters.

HED_COMMA_MISSING: HED tag groups and tags must be separated with commas.

Commas missing between two HED tags are generally detected as invalid HED tags, rather than as missing commas.

HED_DEF_UNMATCHED: A HED Def/ label cannot be matched to definition name.

A Def tag label cannot be correctly matched to a definition name because the definition is missing or defined multiple times.

HED_DEF_VALUE_INVALID: A Def/ label value is missing or has incorrect format or value.

A Def/ tag value is a schema node name.

A Def/ tag value does not meet the requirements associated with the placeholder in its definition tag group.

A Def/ tag has a value, but its corresponding Definition does not have a placeholder.

A Def/ tag does not have a value, but its corresponding Definition has a value.

HED_DEFINITION_INVALID: The Definition syntax is incorrect or nested.

A definition name is invalid or already appears as a schema node.

A definition is not in a top-level tag group.

A definition’s enclosing tag group contains another Definition/ tag.

A definition contains Def/ or Def-expand/ tags.

A definition that includes a placeholder (#) does not have exactly two # characters: one after the definition name and one in the definition tag-group body.

A definition has placeholders (#) in incorrect positions.

HED_GENERIC_ERROR: A HED expression raised an uncategorized error.

An error that does not fall into other categories.

HED_GENERIC_WARNING: A HED expression raised an uncategorized warning.

An warning that does not fall into other categories.

HED_LIBRARY_UNMATCHED: A tag starting with name: does not have an associated library.

A tag that starts with name: is interpreted as a library schema nickname name, but no library schema is defined.

The association of name with an actual HED library schema must be passed to the validator when the string containing the tag is validated.

HED_NODE_NAME_EMPTY: An empty tag was detected in a HED string.

A tag has extra slashes at beginning, end, or within a tag (implying empty node names).

A HED string starts or ends with a slash.

A HED tag contains consecutive slashes (as this implies a missing term name within a HED tag).

HED_ONSET_OFFSET_ERROR: An Onset or Offset tag is used incorrectly.

An Onset or Offset tag appears without being grouped with a defined name (using a Def-expand/ tag group or a Def/ ).

An Offset tag appears before an Onset tag with the same name (or name/value).

An Offset tag of a given name appears after a previous Offset tag without the appearance of an intervening Onset of the same name.

An Onset tag group either lacks an internal tag group or has more than one internal tag group. Note: if the Onset tag group’s definition is in expanded form, the Def-expand will be an additional internal tag group.

HED_PARENTHESES_MISMATCH: A HED string has unmatched open and closed parentheses.

A HED string does not have the same number of open and closed parentheses.

Open and closed parentheses are not correctly nested.

HED_PLACEHOLDER_INVALID: A # is missing or appears in a place that it should not.

A JSON sidecar has a placeholder (#) in the HED dictionary for a categorical column.

A JSON sidecar does not have exactly one placeholder (#) in each HED string representing a value column.

A placeholder (#) is used but its parent in the schema does not have a placeholder child.

HED_REQUIRED_TAG_MISSING: An event-level annotation missing a required tag.

An assembled event string does not contain all tags that have the required schema attribute.

HED_SIDECAR_KEY_MISSING: (WARNING) A categorical value is missing HED tags in sidecar.

The events file column has a HED dictionary in the JSON sidecar but the categorical value does not have a key in the sidecar dictionary.

HED_STYLE_WARNING: (WARNING) An extension or label does not follow HED naming conventions.

A tag name does not start with a capital letter with the remainder lower case.

A tag name contains blanks in HED-3G labels or tag extensions. Use hyphens (not under bars) instead.

HED_TAG_EMPTY: Extra commas or empty parentheses indicate empty tags.

A HED string has multiple consecutive commas (ignoring white space).

A HED string begins or ends with a comma (which implies an empty HED tag).

A tag group is empty (i.e., empty parentheses are not allowed).

HED_TAG_EXTENDED: (WARNING) HED tag represents an extension from the schema.

This tag represents an extension of the HED schema. (Often such tags are really spelling errors and not meant to extend the schema.)

HED_TAG_GROUP_ERROR: A tag does not have its required tag group behavior.

A tag has tagGroup or topLevelTagGroup attribute but is not in an appropriate tag group.

A tag with the topLevelTagGroup attribute appears in same tag group as other tags with the topLevelTagGroup attribute.

HED_TAG_INVALID: The tag is not valid in this schema.

The tag has incorrect format for compliance with this schema.

The tag is used as a tag extension or placeholder value while appearing elsewhere in the schema.

HED_TAG_NOT_UNIQUE: A HED tag appears multiple times.

A HED tag with unique attribute appears more than once in an event-level HED string.

HED_TAG_REPEATED: HED tags cannot be repeated in the same tag group or level.

HED strings are not ordered, so (B, C) is equivalent to (B, C).

(A, (A, B)) is not a duplicate.

(A, (B, C), A) and (A, (B, C), (C, B)) are duplicates.

HED_TAG_REQUIRES_CHILD: A HED tag requires an additional ending node.

The tag has the requireChild schema attribute but does not have a child.

HED_TILDES_UNSUPPORTED: The tilde notation is no longer supported.

The tilde syntax is no longer supported for any version of HED. Annotators should replace the syntax (A ~ B ~ C) with (A, (B, C)).

The tilde (~) is considered an invalid character in all versions of the schema.

HED_UNITS_DEFAULT_USED: (WARNING) A HED tag value is missing units.

If the corresponding unit class has default units, those are assumed.

HED_UNITS_INVALID: HED tag value has incorrect or invalid units.

A HED tag has a value with units that are invalid or not of the correct unit class for the tag.

A typical mistake is to use unit modifiers with units that are not SI units.

HED_VALUE_INVALID: The value substituted for a placeholder (#) is not valid.

A tag value is incompatible with the specified value class.

A tag value with no value class is assumed to be a label and may contain invalid characters.

A tag value is a schema node name.

HED_VERSION_DEPRECATED: (WARNING) The HED version is deprecated.

It is strongly recommended that a current version be used as these deprecated versions may not be supported in the future.

Deprecated versions can be found in https://github.com/hed-standard/hed-specification/tree/master/hedxml/deprecated.

HED_VERSION_WARNING: (WARNING) The HED version number or HED schema was not provided or was invalid, so the latest version is used.

## B.2. Schema validation errors¶

This section is organized by the type of schema format that results in the error. Errors that might be detected regardless of the schema format start with HED_SCHEMA. Errors that are specific to the .mediawiki format start with HED_WIKI. Errors that occur in the construction of the XML version or that are detected by XML validators when the planned XSD validation is implemented start with HED_XML.

### B.2.2. General validation schema errors¶

HED_SCHEMA_ATTRIBUTE_INVALID: An attribute not defined in the appropriate schema section.

The unitClass attribute must be defined in the unitClassDefinitions section of the schema.

A unitClass attribute has an invalid suffix because it is not a plural or unit modifier.

A valueClass attribute must be defined in the valueClassDefinitions section of the schema.

An schema attribute is not defined in the schemaAttributeDefinitions section.

HED_SCHEMA_CHARACTER_INVALID: The specification contains an invalid character.

HED_SCHEMA_DUPLICATE_NODE: A schema node name appears in the schema more than once.

The head has invalid characters or format.

HED_SCHEMA_NODE_NAME_INVALID: Schema node name is empty or contains invalid characters.

HED_SCHEMA_REQUIRED_SECTION_MISSING: A required schema section is missing.

The required sections (corresponding to the schema, unit classes, unit modifiers, value classes, schema attributes, and properties) are not in the correct order.

Required schema sections may be empty, but still be given.

HED_SCHEMA_VERSION_INVALID: The schema version in the HED line or element is invalid.

A HED version specification does not have the correct syntax for the schema file format.

A HED schema version does not comply with semantic versioning.

### B.2.3. Format-specific schema errors.¶

HED_WIKI_DELIMITERS_INVALID: Delimiters used in the wiki are invalid.

Schema line content after node name is not enclosed with <nowiki></nowiki> delimiters.

A line has unmatched or multiple <nowiki></nowiki>, [ ], or { } delimiters.

HED_WIKI_LINE_START_INVALID: Start of body line not ''' or *.

HED_WIKI_SEPARATOR_INVALID: Required wiki section separator is missing or misplaced.

A required schema separator is missing. (The required separators are: !# start schema, !# end schema, and !# end hed.)

HED_XML_SYNTAX_INVALID: XML syntax or does not comply with specified XSD.

Python tools generally raise a HedFileError exception when a failure to load the schema occurs. The calling programs are responsible for deciding how to handle such a failure.